In a seminal pair of decisions, Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544 (2007) and Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 556 U.S. 662 (2009), the United States Supreme Court clarified that the pleading standard under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 8(a) requires that a complaint contain sufficient factual allegations to state a claim to relief “that is plausible on its face.” Neither Twombly nor Iqbal addressed, however, whether this “plausibility” standard also applies to denials under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 8(b). In its recent decision in In re Mortgages Ltd., 771 F.3d 623 (9th Cir. 2014), the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals weighed in and held that the “plausibility” standard does not apply to denials.
The debtor in this case, Mortgages Ltd., was a private lender that made loans secured by real estate located in Arizona. Mortgages Ltd. funded its lending operations, in part, by selling fractional interests in itsRead More
In In re Trump Entertainment Resorts, Inc., a bankruptcy case currently pending before the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware at Case No. 14-12103, the union at a famous Atlantic City casino made a bet on its ability to “hold up” the casino’s bankruptcy process and force hard line negotiations on an expired collective bargaining agreement. Ultimately, this gamble did not pay off, as the Honorable Judge Kevin Gross held that the casino was permitted to reject the expired collective bargaining agreement as an “executory contract” under the Bankruptcy Code. Put succinctly, the union’s negotiation tactics resulted in the loss of all benefits under the collective bargaining agreement for union members
While the holding in Trump is predicated on extreme factual circumstances, it serves as a reminder that parties seeking to “stiff-arm” negotiations may face serious repercussions, particularly in the context of bankruptcy.
The circuits areRead More
For lenders in many jurisdictions around the United States, the risk of post-sale litigation expense for valuation determinations can be daunting. However, in a recent unpublished opinion, the Arizona Court of Appeals concluded that once a judgment is entered, the Arizona statute providing a right to a post-sale valuation hearing does not apply if the sale occurs after judgment is entered.
In states like Arizona, there are statutory protections for obligors that require a court to conduct a valuation hearing to determine the lender’s enforceable deficiency. Recently, Bryan Cave represented a lender in attempting to recover on a defaulted loan. In that case, the borrower/guarantors were convinced that the Arizona real property securing the loan was far more valuable than what the lender could recover at a non-judicial foreclosure sale (i.e., in Arizona, a trustee’s sale).
In our case, the lender commenced a trustee’s sale simultaneously with pursuing an actionRead More
Lenders are frequently confronted with questionable lender-liability claims not only from borrowers (usually in connection with collection or foreclosure procedures) but also from property managers unable to recover from borrowers. Claims property managers assert directly against lenders include those for breach of oral or written contract, fraud, and unjust enrichment (particularly if the lender has foreclosed its interest in the borrower’s property). Lenders can hedge against the risk of claims by property managers through a variety of methods, both pre- and post-borrower default.
As part of origination (or any subsequent review of the borrower’s property management agreement), the lender should ensure that the property management agreement clearly defines that the property manager can turn solely to the borrower for satisfaction of the property manager’s fees and expenses. Thorough property management agreements will also cap expenses the property manager is allowed to incur absent approval, which can help avoid successfulRead More
In July 2014, the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL) approved the Uniform Voidable Transaction Act (UVTA), a long-awaited update to the Uniform Fraudulent Transactions Act (UFTA). As the new title suggests, the UVTA, like the UFTA before it, encompasses a broader range of transactions than those traditionally deemed fraudulent and therefore avoidable under the common law. The amended Act clarifies and expands the burden of proof as well as presenting new challenges and opportunities to creditors seeking to avoid transfers by debtors operating under insolvent conditions. This development also has importance for creditors with claims in bankruptcy due to the bankruptcy trustee’s power to bring avoidance actions based on state law under 11 U.S.C. § 544(b) and thereby increase the assets available to repay debts.
Under the amended Act as before, creditors bringing constructive fraudulent transfer claims have the ability to avoid transactions which deprive theRead More
A Memorandum of Decision recently entered in In re 56 Walker, LLC, Case No. 13-11571 (ALG), Bankr. S.D.N.Y. (Mar. 25, 2014), provides clear guidance as to the effect of a state court decision granting summary judgment in favor of a secured lender in a foreclosure action prior to the Debtor’s bankruptcy filing.642-737 dumps The collateral estoppel, res judicata and Rooker-Feldman doctrines each separately served as grounds for the Bankruptcy Court’s finding that it was unable to review the prior state court decision.
In 56 Walker, the Debtor’s sole asset was a six-story mixed-use building in New York, New York. The property was pledged as security for a mortgage loan with Broadway Bank. The Debtor defaulted, and Broadway Bank commenced a foreclosure action against the Debtor in the Supreme Court of New York, New York County. After a first chapter 11 case was dismissed, MB Financial Bank, N.A. (having acquiredRead More
The California Court of Appeal for the Fifth Appellate District has held that a borrower has standing to state a claim for wrongful foreclosure based on the alleged improper securitization of the borrower’s note and deed of trust. Glaski v. Bank of America, N.A., et al., 218 Cal. App. 4th 1079 (Cal. App. 5th Dist. 2013). This is a minority view. Rejecting both the holding and reasoning of the Glaski court, and adopting the majority view, the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of California reached a contrary conclusion. Sandri v. Capital One, N.A., et al. (In re Sandri), No. 12-3165DM, 2013 WL 5925655 (Bankr. N.D. Cal. Nov. 5, 2013).
I. Glaski v. Bank of America, N.A., et al., 218 Cal. App. 4th 1079 (Cal. App. 5th Dist. 2013)
Factual Background and Procedural History:
In mid-2005, appellant Glaski obtained a purchase money loan from lender Washington Mutual Bank, FARead More